India has a large volume of population, most of whom have a car or bike. The daily commute of these population masses is a huge contributor to pollution and destruction of nature on a daily basis. To counter this, the government signed an agreement in 2017 to cut the carbon footprint by 35-55%, which led to the introduction of BS4 or Bharat Stage 4. The Bharat Stage Emission Standards are emission regulations from the government of India to regulate the amount of pollutants from motor vehicles. It was first introduced in 2000.
However, at the time of BS4, NOx (Nitrogen oxides) emissions of petrol and PM (Particulate matter) emissions of diesel engines, were not reduced as expected, which led to the new launch of the BS6 on April 1, 2020. This BS6 will be pushed to automobiles rolling out in 2020.
Benefits of BS6:
Bharat Stage 6 was instituted by the government of India to control the pollution from internal combustion engine of vehicles. The BS6 norms will see the NOx emissions come down by 25% approximately in case of petrol engines and 68% in the case of diesel engines. The PM emissions for diesel engines will come down by 80%.
Impact of the cost:
The BS6 engines will see a small rise in fuel prices. This is due to the additional costs factories have to incur to upgrade equipment and refinement processes for BS6 norms. Because industry specialists believe the higher costs of upgrading diesel vehicles will make them pricier, but not too pricey. Where Petrol car costs area unit are expected to vary between Rs.10,000-20,000 more, and diesel cars to about Rs 80,000-1,00,000.
While the auto industry in India has hit a low, the Bharat Stage Emission Standards is a good effort by the government to control the rising levels of air pollution across the country.
Every car comes with some metal parts in the exterior, and fibre in the interior. It is very common for these parts to start producing noises over years of use, largely because of vehicle usage.
Engine knocking sounds:
This is heard when you drive your car by changing gears or by acceleration. It is caused because the early ignition of the air-fuel mixture has not produced the minimum power at the right time. In this case, check your engine oil level. If you find any faults, take it to your nearest service centre. Sometimes proper tuning of the engine could fix this issue.
Pinging on cold start:
This noise is caused by the fuel mixture in the engine cylinder being ignited too early by the heat of compression. We can hear this noise during acceleration of the vehicle. As the engine gets older, it will start to ping more on cold start.
Tapping sound from the engine:
The tapping sound from the engine is due to the low oil level or loose components. You can check your oil level using the dipstick. When you rev, the engine tends to produce more tap or upper valve train noises.
Loud squealing noises come from the internal engine and is caused by the belts. In a car, there are multiple belts: one for power steering pulley and one for the AC compressor. The belts generally slip from the pulley because it’s worn out. This sound is louder when you start the engine cold and fades away as you accelerate.
This is one of the common engine noises heard frequently. This noise is caused by the driver when shifting the gears; because when you apply the gear with half clutch, then there will be a grinding noise. If you are doing so, avoid it because it can damage the entire engine system.
Check the oil level regularly; because in a car, noises arise primarily because of the low level of oil. The other common thing is a bad belt, which can cause squealing noises. If you find worn-out belts, it’s time to replace them.
Cars have become part and parcel of day to day sustenance but buying one is not a takeaway for everyone. Not all are gifted to get a brand new eye-candy to boast off, and some may have to settle with second-hand products. But why should one feel bad about getting a used car if it looks good, runs well and satisfies the needs? Here are a few pointers to check on before deciding on purchasing a used car.
The type of car, the purse amount and the type of usage must be taken into account before deciding to go for a car.
The type of car would essentially mean the number of people most likely to travel in it
The type of usage would mean long or short drives and the type of terrain the car would be subjected to while being driven.
Once the model is fixed up in mind, second-hand purchases become quite easy because there would be a single-minded set of questions to be asked to various people regarding that model only. Always ask two or three authorised dealers before fixing on an estimate.
Open the bonnet:
Cars appearing like this from behind might have problems in the front like this.
So it is always better to have a compartmentalised view of the car before deciding to go for it.
The heart of the vehicle should be checked thoroughly, mostly with the help of a mechanic or a person with adequate hands-on experience with automobiles. The flywheels would get rusty after prolonged usage. Checking the engine also means investigating every small component associated with it right from the bearings to the valves.
The belt drives associated with the engines are also mandatory checkpoints. These belts are usually toothed and hence any deformation in the tooth would mean the car has been used too much. The degree of elasticity of the belt would also transform to the quality and quantity of usage. When the belt is slightly pulled and released, the vibratory oscillations should not be more than 1 to 1.5 centimetres.
Usage and distance:
This is one important perspective while buying a second-hand car. If a car is assumed to run for about 30 kilometres a day, it would mean 30 * 365 = 10,950, which can be translated to approximately 11,000 kilometres a year. So if a car (if it is not a taxi) has run more than 75,000 kilometres (which roughly equals 7 years of usage), there are high chances that that particular model has become obsolete. So think twice before buying these kinds of models, because used cars would require a lot of maintenance (at least initially) and hence the spares should be readily available.
Appearance and body:
The car must be examined visually and also by touch. There are certain minor bumps and dents which might not be visible to the naked eye but on sliding the hands over the exterior of the car, one might be able to sense the minor glitches.
The paint and coating also matters; if the car looks old after a sneak peek into the bonnet but it has been painted, there might be recent accidents and paints would mean effective cover-ups. So make sure the paints are used only for the aesthetic needs and not to deceive the buyer.
Tyres, which literally set the wheels in motion, are potential sources of implied information. The distances shown in the odometer of the vehicle can be duped but the tyres would show up variations. Tyres are usually meant to operate for around 25,000 kilometers before replacement. Even if the odometer is being reset (in the case of a digital one) or tampered (in the case of a mechanical type), the tyres can act as good measures of guesstimating the approximate run.
For detailed information, the owner’s service log may be examined to check the history of services. This would give a clear-cut picture of how many services the car has undergone, which would eventually decide if one can buy it or not.
This is where the steering and ABC (acceleration, brake and clutch) of the vehicles come into play significantly. The gears should be shifted by keeping the clutch partially pressed (this condition is called as half-clutch position); this would indicate the smoothness of the transmission system. While shifting, if the gear lever becomes rigid, or if it is harder for shifting, then it means the transmission needs to be looked into.
Also, the vehicle shouldn’t give a rugged feel while driving. Unnecessary wobbles and a roaring noise (typically like that of a note sustained in a bass guitar) at speed ranges of 50 to 70 kilometres per hour would imply the car might cause several problems like engine failure in the near future.
The differentials of the car can be put to test by performing slight turns. If the opposite pairs of tyres (right in the case of a left turn, and left for a right turn) tend to be a bit draggy during the turn, the car might very well be towards its finals stages.
Power steerings are not susceptible to failure very easily; they usually give warning signs before they fail permanently. The initial warning signals would be a freakish screech heard every time the steering is turned to beyond 50 to 60 degrees. This is a minor stage which can be overcome by replacing the steering fluid.
Another way to know the steering effectiveness is to serve it using a single hand. If there is a difficulty in taking a 60-degree turn within 10 meters at 20 km/hr, it is a warning sign that the steering might give in.
Once the deal is settled, make sure to get all the required papers like RC book, insurance documents and other ownership transfer details from the owner so as to avoid any legal disputes and issues.
Cost and quality are two factors separated by a thin line, especially in the case of used car purchase. Be informed, look close and don’t fall for word magic. Think for a second to buy a second-hand car. Vrooom !
Everyone who owns a car has experienced a no-start condition irrespective of the battery status. When your car denies your command, it can be quite depressing. Now you must be wondering why on the face of the Earth won’t your car start when you just got your batteries checked last week, and they were in top-notch condition.
Well, as a car owner you must know the science behind starting your car. Before you hear the sound of the turned-on engine, there are certain connections which have to be made in the ignition circuit. If any component of the ignition circuit goes malfunctioning, then you would face troubles starting your car engine and be late for work again.
Let’s see what could be the possible causes for your car to fail on you.
Faulty ignition switch:
Imagine your ignition circuit with six components arranged linearly. The first component being the battery and the last one being the starter motor. Now the ignition switch forms the second component of this linear arrangement. It indicates the battery to start the engine. If your ignition switch has gone malfunctioning, then this signal will fail to take place thus preventing your car from starting.
Problem with the starter:
Still have the picture of the ignition circuit in your head? Ok, so the last component of the circuit was a starter motor. If your motor is flawed, you can expect a defective car. The starter basically takes the electric current from the battery to start the engine. Well if it can’t do that, it is no good to you. Consider replacing your starter or check if the connection isn’t too flimsy.
No supply of fuel:
Of course, everything requires energy to function. If your car isn’t getting its nutrients, then it is not going to run to its full potential. For the engine to start the fuel must be supplied smoothly into the ignition chamber. If you fail to do proper maintenance of your fuel pump filter, and other components which allow the fuel to be transmitted to the engine effortlessly then, your car might fail to start.
The spark is gone!
Relationships are as good as dead when there is no spark. It’s the same with cars. For your engine to start a spark has to be ignited via the spark plug. If the spark plug has gone dysfunctional due to over-heating, dirt, or any other reason, then your car will not start.
Did you check the gas bar?
Well well, did you check if your car has any fuel at all before deciding to take your girlfriend on a date?
Is your anti-theft system on?
Sometimes when your anti-theft system is on you will be unable to turn the key after inserting it in the keyhole. You can try fidgeting the steering wheel and simultaneously turn the key.
Wires form an integral part of any electrical circuit. And for a circuit to come alive all the wires must be in working condition. Considering checking your ground wire, connecting cables, and other wires if your car doesn’t start.